Tuesday, June 20, 2017

1 & 2 Kings and Isaiah Notes - Including Motyer Commentary Notes

Overview of Biblical History

Ruth - 1&2 Kings = 1 path ; Chronicles just Judah with priestly focus; Prophets interdigitated

DTS 1-2 Kings overview

RTS Judges - Esther Lectures 4?

CTS - OT History Lecture 31-35

SLJ on 1 Kings

Dr. Douglas Stuart on BTI?

Why was 1&2 Kings written? It was written during the captivity to let them know how they got there and how to get back

Adonijah was not disciplined. David's failures (women and fatherhood) are his children's. Shame as this was Solomon's downfall.

The Solomonic kingdom was the height of Israel's earthly glory. 1&2 Kings starts their and ends with the beginning of the return. Please cf Ezra when the old timers cry when they see the rebuilt temple in comparison to Solomon's.

Expulsion of the sodomites

Elisha and the bears - These were not young kids, but young men. Wild animals were a sign of judgment. Other places where wild animals kill - Lion's death too of the prophet and of the man who would not strike the prophet. Lions kill the Babylonians who settle in Samaria 2 Kings 17:25. Cf Leviticus 26:21-22

Cover the blessings and curses of the Palestinian covenant

Rules for kings Deut 17 - predicted

Jeroboam sets up 2 places of worship one up north and the other in Bethel along the way to Jerusalem

Jeroboam's covenant


Mention Jonah

Joshua's curse on Jericho

The curse on Abiathar

Shimei's treachery 

Athaliah sees an opportunity here. She was married to the king of the south. She has had her husband killed. She will now kill off all the other descendants of David trying to take over and sets herself up as queen for six years (Kingdom of God vs Kingdom of Satan)

Prophets' / God's word vs the Kings -think current political situation 

Baal is the storm and rain God that brings fertility. Tempting to worship him in a dry land like Canaan. Think our current political situation. The death god Mot brings forth the dry season by binding Baal and then anath frees him from Mot to bring back the rain. God therefore sends Elijah to say there will be no rain for 3 years!

Passing children through the fire = Abortion

Syncretic religion in the North basically is liberal Christianity today

Sennacherib invasion also in Isaiah (go into text criticism). Shebnah and Elikiah commentary in Isaiah 22.

Isaiah 30:1-5 explicitly states Judah's desire to partner with and take security in Egypt, rather than trusting in the LORD.

Hezekiah shows Babylon his riches, b/c although still under Assyrian rule, they are a rising in power and he wanted to make friends with them (and not trust in God).

Elisha does miracles for the Israelites (for believing remnant? per Belcher)

Elisha does miracles similar to Christ - heals foreigner, multiplying loaves of bread

Elisha performs military style / warfare miracles

2 Kings 9:13 robes are placed on the ground a la triumphal entry

Motyer commentary

Master's Seminary Essex

RTS Isaiah-Malachi Lectures

SLJ Isaiah 

The New Testament does not simply express its dependence on the Old Testament by quoting it. The fourth edition of the United Bible Societies' Greek Testament (1993) lists 343 Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, as well as no fewer than 2, 309 allusions and verbal parallels. The books most used are Psalms (79 quotations, 333 allusions), and Isaiah (66 quotations, 348 allusions). In the Book of Revelation, there are no formal quotations at all, but no fewer than 620 allusions

Unwanted Sacrifices
Calling Good Evil
Chapter 6
Virgin Birth
Immanuel / He will be called prince of peace
Isaiah 53
Laying down Lion and lamb/cow?
King of Tyre/Satan - Latin translation is Lucifer
Armor of God
Isaiah 55:11 God's word doesn't return empty.
Isaiah 40 - Go over, has the verse below, speaks of God's sovereignty, is the start of a new section
Isaiah 40:8 The grass withers, the flower fades, but the word of our God stands forever.
Trinity chapter SLJ
42:23-24 and Ch 1 Motyer says of 23:23 that "The Lord was dishonored by a religion on the cheap; here the assumption that sacrifices were mechanical in the effect dishonors the moral holiness of the Lord by subjecting him to a form of magic." v24 says "But you have burdened me with your sins and wearied me with your offenses." Motyer says 'On burdened/'made a slave of'... the technique of sacrifice God could be made to do their bidding."
Isaiah 45 is awesome

Hezekiah shows that he first trusted in Egypt and the LORD, however, after Rabshakeh's pronouncement and upon his first retreat, Rabshakeh's notes Hezekiah's allegiance to just LORD. He at first tore his clothes and asked Isaiah to pray, but now he does not rend his clothes and prays himself. Hezekiah's prayer is concerned with who God is, His honour, His uniqueness, and His Glory (From Motyer)

Hezekiah was a good king with an impressive record of religious reform, but his heart was not wholly toward God as he relied on worldly arms, politics, instead of God.

Hezekiah was healed and given 15 years and was directly tested afterwards by Babylon's envoy. Will he choose a military and political alliance in fighting Assyria or trust in the God who just healed him?

In the midst of political chaos come compassion and car for His people. 

Began writing at Uzziah's death and there may be  a concern about a return of a wicked king

Essex's view of the purpose of Isaiah:
The holy Yahweh will not permit unholiness in His people, so He will therefore deal with them in such a way as to chasten and purge them and make them fit to participate in His program extending His rule over the Gentiles. 

Last 27 ch directed to the future exiled Israelites!


3 sections King, servant, conqueror

Main theme Holy one of Israel/ Holiness

See first chapter section c King - awesome threat of holiness servant - the lengths God will go to deal with sin conqueror - the Kingdom / eternal state God is preparing 

Ahaz teamed up with Assyria to help him fight the north, but by doing this the Davidic dyanasthy effectively ended as the remaining kings inherited a "puppet throne." Trusting in earthly kings above the divine kings was a lack of faith in God. Isaiah 6-8 are about the consequences that will be reaped by Ahaz's reliance on Assyria and not YHWH. 

Deutero and Trito Isaiah all based on conjecture, non-manuscript evidence and materialistic presuppositions.

Dying Uzziah is juxtaposed to the living Holy God in ch 6.

Ch 10 The final woe is to leaders who deliberately make corrupt and/or self-seeking laws.

10:16-18 as an example of complex literary skill.  Also ch. 11 with its inclusios. 
Ch 12 whole format
Ch 13-23 doublet where Isaiah comments on the nations Israel is surrounded by in gr N S W E directions with Israel in the middle. Location 3950
Ch 32:6-8 3 sentences each successive stanza is two line shorter giving climatic force to the third line
52:13-53:12 is one unit. 5 stanzas of 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 lines. 

God's heart to the devastation of Moab ch 15-16

Isaiah 24 especially vs 21 God's punishment of the heavenly and earthly rulers and comparison to His awesome glory.

Isaiah 25:10-12 Moab's downfall caused by their pride and self-sufficiency are shown as swimming in manure.

God erases the memory and utterly destroys his enemies. For who remember Pharoah's name. He does restrain Himself in punishing His people 27:7

Isaiah 29:21 "In the three lines of verse 21 we meet in turn the false witness, the bent lawyer and the corrupt judge."

Isaiah 32:5 "An imperfect society imperfectly accords honours" - Motyer. The righteous messianic king, brings righteous rulers, and thus a righteous society

Bright, History of Israel, 1960 notes that there are remains of 1500 in  a pit that is possibly the remains of Sennacherib's campaign.

Isaiah 40:12-31 Summary of God as Creator and His omnipotence and sovereignty

In Babylonian mythology, the creator God Marduk had to consult with "Ea, the all wise" not our God! In Babylonian and Caanite creation stories the creator must overcome opposing forces.

Isaiah 42:5 - Not evolution, but God the creator and sustainer!

42:6 Servant of the Lord will be a covenant to the people ie the means by which the people will enter the covenant.

43:20 The animals ie whole world is brought into harmony in the Messianic day.

Isaiah 44:9-20 about modern people and idols. "In our generation we would nominate different 'craftsmen' ... and different constructs... but the absurdity of devotion to the man-made (today's military, economic and market forces) remains." Isaiah talks about spiritual blindness and even the idol makers inability (cf 44:18)  to see the facts. Motyer notes, Isaiah doubts even if they could see the facts that they would not be able to process them correctly.

44:25-26 Whether supernatural diviners or rationale wise men, they all fail against God's wisdom.

51-52 Exodus motif of wrath and redemption (Passover, Punishment of Egyption/Redemption of Jews)

51:1 Jesus refers to when claiming Abraham's sons could be made from stone?

50:6 turn the other cheek?

50:9 now there is no condemnation - Romans 8:1

51:8 moth and garment motif 

56:9-12 God does not buy into the view that policies only matter not the personal lives of the politicians. 

57:5 Trees were part of the Canaanite fertility cult and orgiastic ceremonies. These sexual ceremonies were performed in the sanctuary to stimulate Baal to fertilize animals, land, and humans. Sacrifice of children to please the god of the underworld - a charm against death. 

57:12-13 Reminds me of Matthew 7

59:17-18 The original "armor of God"

63:16 & 64:8 God is called "our Father"

64: menstrual rags

65:17-25 New Heavens and New Earth

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